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Skin cancer

Skin cancer

What is skin cancer 

The abnormal growth of skin cells is called skin cancer, which often occurs in skin exposed to sunlight. But sometimes skin cancer also occurs in those parts of the skin which are not exposed to sunlight in general or are less exposed.

skin cancer


There are three main types of skin cancer - 1)basal cell carcinoma, 

2)squamous cell carcinoma 

3)melanoma 


You can reduce the risk of skin cancer by protecting against ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, skin cancer can be identified in the initial stages by examining suspicious changes in the skin, which can provide an excellent chance of successful treatment. As mentioned above, skin cancer mainly occurs on the skin exposed to the sun, such as the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, and hands. Apart from this, it can also develop on the legs in women.


Along with the above mentioned places of the body, skin cancer also occurs in those parts of the body which are rarely exposed to sun, such as the palms, the underside of the hands and toes, and the genitalia. Skin cancer can affect individuals of all types of complexion. When 'melanoma' usually occurs in dark-colored people, they are most likely to occur in places that are not exposed to the sun.

skin cancer



Types of skin cancer :

How many types of skin cancer are there? There are mainly three types of skin cancer, which are as follows: -


Basal cell carcinoma :

It is the most common type of skin cancer, which originates from the skin cells.


Squamous cell carcinoma:

It is considered the second most common skin cancer, it is also produced from the skin cells.


Melanoma 

It starts in the color-producing cells (Melanocytes) in the skin. Its incidence rate is quite low, but it is quite dangerous as compared to both the above types of skin cancer.


Symptoms of skin cancer:

What are the symptoms and signs of skin cancer?


Basal Cell Carcinoma -

 Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on parts of the body that are exposed to the sun, such as the face and neck. Basal cell carcinoma can occur as follows - 

As a pearl or wax-colored protuberance on the skin, Flat, flesh-colored or brown as a scar-like mark.


squamous cell carcinoma - 

Squamous cell carcinoma also occurs mostly on parts of the body exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, ears, and hands. People with dark skin are also likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma on the skin without exposure to sunlight. Squamous cell carcinoma can occur in the following form - 

1 - as a hard and red lump

2 - as a flat wound with a layer of crust.


Melanoma - 

'Melanoma' can develop anywhere in the body, on normal skin or any mole or wart of any part of the body that turns into skin cancer. In men, 'melanoma' often develops on their face or trunk (abdomen, waist and chest, etc.), and in women it often develops on the lower leg. In men and women, 'melanoma' can also develop on those parts of their body that are not exposed to sunlight.


Melanoma can affect people of all skin types. In people with dark skin, 'melanoma' develops under the soles of their palms and feet or under the fingernails of the hands and feet. Signs of melanoma: 

▪Large brown spot, with darker dots. 

▪A mole or wart whose color and shape has started changing or blood has started coming out of it. 

▪A small wound with temporary edges and parts, which may be red, white, blue, or dark-blue.

▪Dark lesions that can occur on the palms, soles of the body, hands and toes, mucous membrane lining in the mouth, nose and genitals.


When to see a doctor:

 If you are seeing any kind of change in your skin, which you feel cause for concern, then please contact the doctor. The doctor will examine your skin to determine the cause of the change in the skin. Not necessarily every skin change is the cause of skin cancer, but if there is any change in the skin, then definitely contact the doctor.


Skin cancer causes and risk factors:


Why does skin cancer occur?


Skin cancer occurs when the DNA of skin cells has mutations (a type of error or abnormality). Due to mutations, the skin cells start growing uncontrollably and form a group of cancer cells in the skin. Skin cancer begins on the upper layer of the skin, this layer is also called epidermis. The epidermis is a thin layer, it provides a protective covering of the skin cells, allowing a continuous shed in the body.


Squamous cells - 

It lies just below the topmost surface of the skin, which acts as the inner layer of the skin.


Basal cells - 

These cells form new skin cells, which are located just below the squamous cells.


Melanocytes - 

These cells make 'melanin', a pigment (color imparting substance) that imparts normal color to the skin. It is located in the lower part of the epidermis. When you are in the sun, 'melanocytis' begins to produce more melanin to protect the inner lining of your skin. It should be noted that the type and treatment options are determined on the basis of where the skin cancer starts.


It should be noted that the type and treatment options are determined on the basis of where the skin cancer starts.


Ultraviolet rays and other possible causes:


Most cases of skin cells destroyed by DNA are the result of ultraviolet radiation. These radiations are found in sunlight and lights used for tanning beds. But exposure to the sun itself cannot be considered the cause of skin cancer, because skin cancer can also occur on those parts of the body that are not exposed to the sun.


Cases of skin cells destroyed by DNA also indicate other factors that promote skin cancer risk, such as exposure to toxins or a condition such as a weakened immune system.


Risk factors for skin cancer:


•fair skin - 

By the way, skin cancer can happen to people of any skin tone. But fair skin contains less pigment (melanin), which provides less protection from ultraviolet radiation.


•Have you ever been sunburned before?


 During childhood or adolescence, if one or more blisters or blisters are formed due to sunburn, then the risk of skin cancer increases as an adult. Being an adult is also a risk of skin cancer.


•Long time in the sun - 

If a person spends too much time in the sun, there may be an increased risk of skin cancer. Especially when he has not used clothes or sunscreen etc. to avoid the sun.



•Staying in very sunny or high altitude place - 

People who live in sunny and hot weather are more exposed to the sun than people living in cold weather. In high altitude, sunlight is very powerful, increasing the risk of exposure to ultraviolet radiation to people living there.


•Moles :

Individuals who have high or abnormal moles on their body may also have skin cancer risks. Unusual moles are those that are temporary, and are larger than the size of normal moles. They are more likely to become cancerous than normal moles. If such abnormal moles appear on the body, then their changes should be monitored regularly.


•Pre-cancerous wound - 

Skin lesions known as 'actinic keratosis' may also increase the risk of developing skin cancer. These pre-cancerous lesions typically appear as dry and flaky spots, which can range in color from brown to dark pink.


•Someone in the family first gets skin cancer -

 If someone in your parents or siblings has had skin cancer before, then the risks of skin cancer are also increased for you.


•Have you ever had skin cancer before?

 For a person who has suffered from skin cancer in the past, then the risk of developing it again increases.


•Weak immune system - 

People with weakened immune systems may be at greater risk of developing skin cancer. People who have HIV-AIDS or are taking immunosuppressant drugs after an organ transplant often have a weakened immune system.


•Exposure to Radiations - 

People who get radiation treatment for eczema or acne etc. have an increased risk of skin cancer. In particular, they have an increased risk of 'basal cell carcinoma'. 


•Exposure to harmful substances - 

Exposure to certain harmful substances, such as arsenic, increases the risk of skin cancer.


Skin cancer prevention - 

How to prevent skin cancer? 


Most skin cancers can be prevented, the following measures should be used to prevent skin cancer on its own


•Avoid exposure to the sun in the middle of the day - 


You absorb ultraviolet radiation throughout the year, with clouds providing little protection from harmful rays. Avoiding it during excessive sunlight can prevent sunburn and suntans. Direct exposure to the sun in the middle of the day damages the skin and increases the risk of skin cancer. In addition, exposure to the sun most of the time also increases the risk of skin cancer.


•Use sunscreen throughout the year - 

Sunscreen is not able to filter out some of the harmful radiation, especially the radiation that develops 'melanoma'. But it plays an important role in total protection from the sun. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with at least 15 SPF. Apply sunscreen on a light body and apply it every two hours. Apply sunscreen even if you are swimming or you are sweating. Exposures to the sun like lips, ears,

Apply appropriate amount of sunscreen to the neck and back of hands.


•Wear protective clothing - 

Sunscreen does not provide complete protection against ultraviolet rays. Therefore, before going in the sun, your skin and hands and feet should be covered with dark colors and tightly woven clothes. Also, wear a normal cap, wear a large and stretched hat that can give you more protection in the sun.


•Beware of sun-sensitive medications -


 Some common prescription over-the-counter medicines and over-the-counter (over-the-counter medicines medications, such as antibiotics, etc. These medicines make the skin more sensitive to sunlight.

Keep checking the skin regularly and tell the doctor if you see changes - Frequent examination of new skin should be done and in addition to this, mole, warts, freckles, scars during birth etc. should also be checked periodically. With the help of glass, your face, ears, neck and scalp etc. should be examined closely. Keep checking your chest, abdomen and waist, etc. Also check the inner side of the upper arms (in and around the armpits) well. Keep checking your feet and legs thoroughly, including the center of the toes.Keep checking your genitals and buttocks too.


Skin cancer test:

In the diagnosis of skin cancer, doctors can do the following:


•Skin examination -

 Doctors can examine the skin to determine if a change in your skin is likely to cause skin cancer. In addition, further tests can be performed to confirm the diagnosis.


•Removal of a piece of skin suspected for the test (skin biopsy) - 

In this, the doctor removes a small piece of the contaminant skin as a sample and sends it for a laboratory test. With the help of biopsy, is it determined if you have skin cancer? And if so, what kind of skin cancer is that?


•To find out how much skin cancer has increased:

 If the doctor determines that you have skin cancer, then the doctor may do additional tests to determine its extent. Superficial skin cancers such as 'basal cell carcinoma' are very rare, so the enlarged area of ​​the skin is removed with the help of a skin biopsy. It is often the only test to determine the stage of cancer. But if the size of your squamous, Merkel cell carcinoma or melanoma is large,So your doctor can do upcoming tests to find out the extent of skin cancer.

Doctors use Roman numerals from

 (I) to (IV) to indicate the stage of cancer. In stage (I), the cancer remains confined to the place where it develops. Stage (IV) of skin cancer is its most severe form, in which it has spread to other parts of the body as well. The stages of skin cancer help in selecting effective and appropriate medicines for it.


Treatment of skin cancer-


How is skin cancer treated? 

Treatment of skin cancer or pre-cancerous lesions (actinic keratitis) depends on its size, type, depth and location. Small skin cancers that are confined to the surface of the skin do not require other treatment after skin biopsy. With the help of skin biopsy, parts of cancer cells are removed.


Even after the above, if additional treatment is required, then it may include the following options -


•Freezing

 In this process, doctors freeze and destroy actinic keratoses and some small, early cancerous parts with liquid nitrogen. The damaged skin tissue is removed after melting.


•Excisional surgery - 

It is an appropriate treatment for all types of skin cancer. In this, the doctors cut out the cancerous parts from around the healthy skin. In some cases, some healthy skin around the wound may also need to be removed in case of a serious condition.


•Mohs surgery 

This procedure is used for extremely large and recurrent skin cancers or those that are difficult to treat, such as 'basal' and 'squamous carcinoma'. It is often used for those parts of the body that need to be protected as much as possible, such as the nose.


•Curettage and electrodesiccation or cryotherapy - 

Most parts of skin cancer are removed with the help of surgery. The doctor then scraps the layer of cancer cells with the help of a blade tool and cleans them. The remaining cancer cells are also destroyed with the help of an electric needle. Liquid nitrogen can also be used in a variation of this process. With this help, the bases and edges of the treated areas are frozen and stabilized.


•Radiation therapy 

High-powered energy beams such as 'X-rays' are used in radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy remains an option even if cancer cells are not completely destroyed during surgery.


•Chemotherapy

 In this process, drugs are used to kill cancer cells and for those cancer cells which are confined to the upper layer of the skin, creams and lotions are used. These contain anti-cancer agents and can be applied directly to the affected skin. Simultaneously, systemic chemotherapy is used for skin cancer that can spread to other parts of the body.


•Photodynamic therapy 

This therapy involves a combination of both laser light and medications. In this, cancer cells are sensitized to laser light with the help of drugs and they are destroyed with the help of laser light.

 •Biological therapy 

This therapy stimulates the body's immune system to destroy cancer cells.



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1 टिप्पणी:

  1. It is very important to check your skin, head to toe every month. Use a mirror for that. If you don't see any part, ask your family member or friend to help. And if you find any changes in it, show it to your dermatologist. This way you can identify the symptoms of skin cancer. The above blog has written about skin cancer in great detail.
    Read more: https://www.allmedscare.com/

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